General information

Ultrasound - a noninvasive and painless method for investigating the state of the organs and tissues by using ultrasonic waves. Ultrasound examinations are based on the ability of ultrasound to "reflect" on internal organs and tissues that have different densities. The reflected echoes are received into the amplifier and special reconstruction system then appear on the screen of a TV monitor as an image. 



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Duplex scanning of vessels of the head and comfortable
Ogranov abdominal cavity
Pocket and napochechnikov
Duplex scanning of vessels of the head and comfortable

Called a duplex scan mode of the ultrasound apparatus in which simultaneously receive black-and-white image, and an image of blood vessels with moving blood. In some devices for mobility of the tissues is used by the motion detection tissue - tissue Doppler imaging. Basically, the term duplex scanning understand the image of blood flow.


When duplex scanning using the Doppler effect. This effect consists in the fact that the ultrasonic wave is reflected from the surface of the moving particle, changing its frequency. In that case, if the particle motion coincides with the direction of propagation of the ultrasonic beam or at an angle thereto (not to exceed 60 degrees) you can determine the frequency shift of the reflected signal and calculate the speed. Because blood consists of plasma and formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets), the reflection from a set of particles creates a Doppler shift. Doppler shift can be encoded as a graph of speed of blood from a vessel in the form of a visual representation of blood flow at different speeds. In this case, the speed is encoded by different shades. Mapping blood flow with the help of color against black – and-white images of conventional ultrasound called a duplex scan. Also in some cases use the term color Doppler encoding.


Duplex scanning allows first of all to see the blood vessels in places where they cannot openwith with conventional ultrasound. For example in the cranial cavity duplex scanning is the primary method for diagnosing disorders of cerebral blood flow in the arteries and veins. Before the advent of duplex scanning in vascular research in the brain was undertaken using ultrasonic Doppler blind study. The researcher did not see the vessel, and sent the sensor in place the proposed projections of the vessel and using a special device recorded sounds (speed encoded in the sound volume). With the advent of duplex scanning has become possible to accurately visualize the location of blood vessels and to study their characteristics.

Transcranial scanning. Triplex mode


Duplex scanning may be a separate method of diagnosis – as,for example, in cases of studies of brain vessels,vertebral arteries, deep veins and arteries. More often duplex scanning is a very valuable addition to many types of ultrasound. In modern ultrasound diagnostics almost always there is a need for additional duplex studies.


Duplex scanning is usually posed no threat to the health of the patient. However Doppler radiation has high energy and its use should be minimized in pregnant women. Also when high radiation levels exist the possibility of damage to the retina if used orbital access at duplex scanning of ocular and Yablokova arteries.

duplex scanning of brain vessels


Duplex scanning of vessels – examination, which allows to register the readings in two modes – in normal b-mode (black and white) and color Doppler (DFC). If using pulsed Doppler, the study is called triplex. Duplex scanning allows you to see the flow and to measure its speed performance, direction, uniformity. Duplex scanning of vessels are used for diagnostics of the arteries and veins of the hands and feet, neck, brain, abdominal vessels, vessels of the penis, pelvic vessels, prostate, spermatic cord and testicles in men, uterus and ovaries in women. Also make duplex scanning in pregnancy to determine blood flow in the umbilical cord, uterine artery, heart, and aorta of the fetus, in the blood vessels of the fetal brain.


Functional tests check for defects in the regulation of vascular tone and help in the diagnosis of local vascular changes and General disorders in the body. Using functional tests examine the mechanisms of regulation mediated metabolic changes in a working limb - for example in working limb vessels rastirayutsya and the rate of passage of blood through them increases. Provide the change several regulatory mechanisms. Since the most important function of blood vessels in the limbs - ensuring adequate blood flow under different physiological conditions,violation of the mechanisms of regulation leads to malfunctioning of the arteries. When the duplex scanning function tests are a mandatory element of the study. Alone often fail to detect violations of blood circulation, which can serve as signals for making netlogic measures to save the limb. The most common functional tests reveal the contribution of metabolic, muscular and endothelial factors of regulation. Usually the patient is instructed to perform within a certain time physical activity in the investigated limb. After the load record indexes of arterial blood flow and compare them with the values measured before the study. The norm is the change in performance from 10 to 40%. Also used the sample with the voltage of the limb - indicators of blood flow are also measured before and during stress. There is a test with nitroglycerin. Ispolzuut property of nitroglycerin to relax the muscles of arteries of average caliber and melcocha.


The ankle–brachial index measured during duplex scanning of vessels to assess the status of the arterial blood supply to the foot. Normal blood pressure in the arms (brachial artery) is lower than the pressure in the arteries of the leg up to 20-30 mmHg. article In diseases accompanied by a decrease in arterial blood supply, this difference decreases and even there can occur a situation, when the pressure on the hand more than the pressure on the lower leg. For example at atherosclerotic defeat of vessels of the legs or arterial thrombosis. On the contrary, too great an increase in blood pressure on the lower leg compared to the shoulder may occur when increased stiffness of the vascular wall (such as calcification). The ankle – brachial index is the ratio of systolic blood pressure in the arteries of the leg (usually posterior tibial artery) to the systolic blood pressure of the brachial artery. Measurements at the brachial artery produced in a conventional way so as to measure blood pressure. Measurement of pressure in the posterior tibial artery is determined using duplex scan. The normal value of ankle – brachial index is 0. 9-1. 3. If the value is 0. 41-0. 9, this shows a moderate disturbance of blood supply to the limb. If the ratio is lower than 0. 4 – this speaks of serious violations. The ankle – brachial index is measured twice: at rest and after a 5 minute physical activity. It is believed that changes in ankle brachial index indicate a high probability of stroke and myocardial infarction.

duplex scanning veins


During the duplex scanning of vessels of the extremities to assess endothelial function. The detection of violations of the endothelial factors in the regulation gives an indication of pathology is not only one of the studied segment but also on the functioning of the endothelial system of the body as a whole. Recently in medicine are increasingly focused on studying the influence of the endothelial system for many functions organizma. In the vascular endothelium produces a very powerful factors are local hormones that affect vascular tone and hence blood pressure. The normal functioning of the endothelium provides adequate circulation of blood through the vessels. Atherosclerotic lesions first develop on damaged endothelium. The total weight of endothelial cells in the adult body is about 2 kg. For comparison, the weight of the thyroid gland of around 30 G. the Impact of thyroid hormones on the human body it is known to all. No less significant have influence and substances produced by the endothelium. Total production of vasoactive substances by the vascular endothelium exceeds the number of products of all the endocrine glands. Procedure for carrying out functional tests the viability of endothelial factors regulating the vascular system is simple and does not take much time. Deviations will help to quickly develop tactics and strategy of treatment of disorders in the early stages, when correction of the pathology of minimal effort. For example, the evaluation of the regulatory potential of endothelial cells is able to choose the therapy of hypertension, erectile dysfunction and disorders of fat metabolism.


Duplex scanning veins of the tion is currently the main diagnostic tool to study the state of the three venous systems of the legs: the deep venous system, superficial venous system and communicating veins. Duplex scanning allows you to register the direction of blood flow veins, the presence and degree of reduction of blood flow, to measure the area of narrowing of the vessel, to diagnose the presence of thrombus and to determine the viability of the venous valves.


Indications for duplex scanning of vessels of the head and neck

Signs of impaired cerebral circulation
Impaired coordination
Change field of view
Traumatic brain injury
Suspected vascular anomalies
Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine



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