What is MRI?

What is MRI?

One of the most effective methods is considered an MRI - magnetic resonance imaging. MRI - is one of the best and most accurate ways to diagnose disease in the soft tissues of the body. Still, there are contraindications to undergo this procedure. However, progress does not stand still, and their numbers every year is getting smaller.
Year rezonanskoy base magnetic imaging in medical circles, considered to be the 1973rd, and this despite the fact that in 1960 the Soviet scientist VA Ivanov suggested method and apparatus for tomography study of internal organs and tissues with the use of nuclear magnetic resonance - NMR imaging. As a result, the inventors of the MRI officially became Peter Mansfield and Paul Lauterbur, who received for his contributions to science in 2003, the Nobel Prize in medicine. Apart from these, a significant contribution to the development of magnetic resonance imaging has made Raymond Vahan Damadian, who investigated the principles and created the first commercial MRI scanner (it is the holder of a patent for an MRI).
By the way, its final name MRI secure for itself since 1986, after the Chernobyl disaster: then is people have phobia makes it extremely difficult to use the word "nuclear" in the name of medical device. But in any case, this does not change the essence of the method: the machine MRI RF coils special capture the response of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms in the human body, a special combination of electromagnetic waves in a static magnetic field high tension. Unlike CT and conventional X-ray, MRI does not use ionizing radiation which can lead to the formation of free radicals that cause mass mortality of cells.
Why use an MRI?
Magnetic resonance imaging is mainly used to diagnose changes in the soft tissues. In addition, this method of study allows you to visualize brain and spinal cord, and other organs with high quality, inaccessible to the X-ray examination, ultrasound or CT scan. MRI plays an important role in the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of common diseases and conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders or damage to the musculoskeletal system. The most common use of MRI - for examination of the spine and central nervous system. The method allows to accurately assess the structure of the bodies, identify any pathology, tumors, traumatic change, and so on. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging is widely used in Angiology, oncology, urology and other areas of medicine.
Head of the Laboratory of socio-economic risk analysis of NCD, Chairman of the Working Group of young cardiologists All-Russian Scientific Society of Cardiology End AV said that an MRI - a modern high-tech diagnostic method which allows to look inside the human body and identify a number of diseases, including cancer. Most importantly, this method can be applied at the earliest stages of the disease when treatment is effective.
Also study the internal organs and soft tissues, this method allows the non-invasive diagnosis - that is, without intervention - to investigate the function of organs: measure the flow rate of cerebrospinal fluid, blood, determine the level of diffusion in the tissues, to track the activation of the cerebral cortex, and more. It turns out that one of the MRI can clarify several aspects of human health. During passage MRI patient is placed in a horizontal position into a narrow tunnel (pipe) with a strong magnetic field of about 15-40 minutes, depending on the type of study. The patient must maintain complete immobility of the body, which is subject to inspection.
The procedure is painless, however, accompanied by a loud noise, to reduce discomfort from which the patients are often offered earphones. By the way, to undergo magnetic resonance imaging, the patient does not need special training. He may continue to use any drugs, not limit yourself to eating and drinking, as well as undergo other medical procedures. Only during the examination of the pelvic organs need to take care of filling of the bladder. But before examining the head, women should not apply makeup, as shadows, mascara and other cosmetics may interfere with obtaining high-quality images, and thereby reduce the accuracy of the procedure. In addition, the patient is important to provide all of the previous data on the ultrasound and MRI studies - then the expert will be easy to trace the dynamics of change.
Contraindications for the passage of MRI
But unfortunately, not all patients can apply this method of diagnosis, as there are a number of absolute and relative contraindications. For example, the completely non-pass magnetic resonance imaging in the presence of a pacemaker installed, various metal implants or metal fragments in the body. At the same time relative contraindications are considered insulin pumps, nerve stimulators, and various non-ferromagnetic implants and prostheses, pregnancy, claustrophobia and the need for physiological monitoring.
If we talk about patients with pacemakers, the magnetic resonance imaging would be very useful to them in terms of the state of research. According physicians, approximately 50-75% of patients worldwide were living with implanted pacemakers anyway require MRI scan during the life of the device. So in 2010 there was the first and still the only one in the world production of Medtronic pacemaker with a unique technology that allows the passage of magnetic resonance imaging. This was achieved by changing and improving the internal circuit system and reduce the number of ferromagnetic components. Today, a new pacemaker already allows to pass the full examination using MRI more than 13,000 patients around the world, and in June 2011 it was announced that the output of the pacing system to the Ukrainian market.
With regard to pregnant women, to date, experts have collected insufficient evidence that MRI is completely safe for the fetus. But, doctors say, is preferable to MRI imaging and computed tomography, and allows you to get more information than using ultrasound. Moreover, the relatively limited for the passage of magnetic resonance imaging may be the presence of tattoos, made with the help of dyes containing metallic compounds, including those based on titanium compounds (for example, titanium dioxide), though itself titanium is not ferromagnetic and practically safe MRI.
There is also a psychological problem: due to the fact that the procedure takes place in a relatively narrow space, people with even mild form of claustrophobia may experience discomfort. However, today there are already less bulky MRI machines with larger openings, and treatment time is reduced. There are also public phones and devices in which the patient can be imaged standing. But, experts say, the quality of the results obtained by the conventional method is inferior. So sometimes the full and effective use of research or complete local anesthesia, especially for infants and young children who can not remain still during the procedure.